Justiciability of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The ILO Experience
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Justiciability of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights:
the ILO Experience

Appendices


Appendix I

Extract from the April 2002 ILO report to the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights:

Principal ILO Conventions Relevant to Articles 6-10 & 13 of the Covenant

The following is a list of the principal ILO Conventions relevant to articles 6-10 and 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Indications on the ratification of these Conventions by each State concerned are given in section II (indications concerning the situation of individual countries).

Article 6 of the Covenant

Unemployment Convention, 1919 (No. 2)
Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention, 1933 (No. 34)
Employment Service Convention, 1948 (No. 88)
Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention, 1949 (No. 96)
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)
Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention, 1957 (No. 107)
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111)
Social Policy (Basic Aims and Standards) Convention, 1962 (No. 117)
Employment Policy Convention, 1964 (No. 122)
Paid Educational Leave Convention, 1974 (No. 140) Human Resources Development Convention, 1975 (No. 142)
Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981 (No. 156)
Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No. 158)
Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention, 1983 (No. 159)
Employment Promotion and Protection Against Unemployment Convention, 1988 (No. 168), Part II
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169)

Article 7 of the Covenant

Remuneration

Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928 (No. 26)
Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery (Agriculture) Convention, 1951 (No. 99)
Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1970 (No. 131)

Equal remuneration

Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100)

Safe and healthy working conditions

White Lead (Painting) Convention, 1921 (No. 13)
Marking of Weight (Packages Transported by Vessels) Convention, 1929 (No. 27)
Protection Against Accidents (Dockers) Convention, 1929 (No. 28)
Protection Against Accidents (Dockers) Convention, 1932 (No. 32)
Safety Provisions (Building) Convention, 1937 (No. 62
Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81)
Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 (No. 115)
Guarding of Machinery Convention, 1963 (No. 119)
Hygiene (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1964 (No. 120)
Maximum Weight Convention, 1967 (No. 127) Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129) Benzene Convention, 1971 (No. 136)
Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention, 1977 (No. 148)
Occupational Safety and Health (Dock Work) Convention, 1979 (No. 152)
Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155)
Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985 (No. 161)
Asbestos Convention, 1986 (No. 162)
Safety and Health in Construction Convention, 1988 (No. 167)
Chemicals Convention, 1990 (No. 170)
Night Work Convention, 1990 (No. 171)
Labour Inspection (Seafarers) Convention, 1996 (No. 178)

Rest, limitation of working hours and holidays with pay

Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 1)
Weekly Rest (Industry) Convention, 1921 (No. 14)
Hours of Work (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1930 (No. 30)
Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935 (No. 47)
Holidays with Pay Convention, 1936 (No. 52)
Holidays with Pay (Agriculture) Convention, 1957 (No. 101)
Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1957 (No. 106)
Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970 (No. 132)
Part-time Work Convention, 1994 (No. 175)
Homework Convention, 1996 (No. 177)
Seafarers' Hours of Work and the Manning of Ships Convention, 1996 (No. 180)

Article 8 of the Covenant

Right of Association (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 (No. 11)
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 (No. 87)
Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98)
Workers' Representatives Convention, 1971 (No. 135)
Rural Workers' Organizations Convention, 1975 (No. 141)
Labour Relations (Public Service) Convention, 1978 (No. 151)
Collective Bargaining Convention, 1981 (No. 154)

Article 9 of the Covenant

Workmen's Compensation (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 (No.12
Workmen's Compensation (Accidents) Convention, 1925 (No. 17)
Workmen's Compensation (Occupational Diseases) Convention, 1925 (No.18)
Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention, 1925 (No.19
Sickness Insurance (Industry) Convention, 1927 (No. 24)
Sickness Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1927 (No. 25)
Old-Age Insurance (Industry, etc.) Convention, 1933 (No. 35)
Old-Age Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1933 (No. 36)
Invalidity Insurance (Industry, etc.) Convention, 1933 (No. 37)
Invalidity Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1933 (No. 38)
Survivor's Insurance (Industry, etc.) Convention, 1933 (No. 39)
Survivor's Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1933 (No. 40)
Workmen's Compensation (Occupational Diseases) Convention (Revised), 1934 (No. 42)
Unemployment Provisions Convention, 1934 (No. 44)
Maintenance of Migrants' Pension Rights Convention, 1935 (No. 48)
Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 (No.102)
Equality of Treatment (Social Security) Convention, 1962 (No. 18)
Employment Injury Benefits Convention, 1964 (No. 121)
Invalidity, Old-Age and Survivor's Benefits Convention, 1967 (No.128)
Medical Care and Sickness Benefits Convention, 1969 (No. 130)
Maintenance of Social Security Rights Convention, 1982 (No.157)
Employment Promotion and Protection Against Unemployment, 1988 (No.168)

Article 10 of the Covenant
(a) Maternity protection (re para. 2)

Maternity Protection Convention, 1919 (No. 3)
Maternity Protection Convention (Revised), 1952 (No. 103)
Maternity Protection Convention (Revised), 2000 (No. 183)

(b) Protection of children and young persons in relation to employment and work (re para. 3)

Minimum Age (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 5)
Minimum Age (Sea) Convention, 1920 (No. 7)
Minimum Age (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 (No. 10)
Minimum Age (Trimmers and Stokers) Convention, 1921 (No. 15)
Minimum Age (Non-Industrial Employment) Convention, 1932 (No. 33)
Minimum Age (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1936 (No. 58)
Minimum Age (Industry) Convention (Revised), 1937 (No. 59)
Minimum Age (Non-Industrial Employment) Convention (Revised), 1937 (No. 60
Minimum Age (Fisherman) Convention, 1959 (No. 112)
Social Policy (Basic Aims and Standards) Convention, 1952 (No. 117) Minimum Age (Underground Work) Convention, 1965 (No. 123)
Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)
Night Work of Young Persons (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 6)
Night Work (Bakeries) Convention, 1925 (No. 20) Night Work of Young Persons (Non-Industrial Occupations) Convention, 1946 (No. 79)
Night Work of Young Persons (Industry) Convention (Revised), 1948 (No. 90)
White Lead (Painting) Convention, 1921 (No. 13) (Article 3)
Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 (No. 115) (Article 7)
Maximum Weight Convention, 1967 (No. 127) (Article 7)
Benzene Convention, 1971 (No. 136) (Article 11)
Medical Examination of Young Persons (Sea) Convention, 1921 (No. 16)
Medical Examination (Seafarers) Convention, 1946 (No. 73)
Medical Examination of Young Persons (Industry) Convention, 1946 (No. 77)
Medical Examination of Young Persons (Non-Industrial Occupations) Convention, 1946 (No. 78)
Medical Examination (Fishermen) Convention, 1959 (No. 113)
Medical Examination of Young Persons (Underground Work) Convention, 1965 (No. 124)
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)

Article 13 of the Covenant

Human Resources Development Convention, 1975 (No. 142)

Reference is also made, when appropriate, to the ILO/UNESCO Joint Recommendation concerning the status of teachers, 1966, and to the work of the Joint ILO/UNESCO Committee which supervises their application.


Appendix II

Extract from preliminary version of database on the use of international standards in national law
ILO's International Training Centre, Turin, Italy, May 2002

Index by Subject

DIRECT APPLICATION OF:

  • European Court of Human Rights' case-law
    Republic of Lithuania n. 86)

  • ILO Committee of Experts on Application of Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR) case-law
    Romania n. 88)

  • ILO Committee on Freedom of Association (CFA) case-law
    Argentina n. 3); Israel n. 58)

  • Inter-American Court of Human Rights' case-law
    Costa Rica n. 40)

  • International instruments (even if not yet ratified)
    Argentina n. 1); Costa Rica n. 34), 36), 39), 40), 42); Croatia n.44), 45); Israel n. 56), 57), 58), 59), 60), 61); Lesotho n. 70); Lithuania n. 86); Nigeria n. 77); Paraguay n. 78), 79) Philippines n. 83); Romania n. 87), 88); South Africa n. 94); Uruguay n. 106), 107)

INTERPRETION OF NATIONAL LEGISLATION IN CONFORMITY WITH:

  • CEACR's case law
    Australia n. 7), 8), 11); Canada n. 13), 22)

  • ILO Commission of Inquiry Reports
    Australia n. 4), 7)

  • CFA's case law
    Estonia n. 49); Canada n. 13)

  • Foreign case-law (Supreme Court of Spain judgement)
    Paraguay n. 81)

  • International instruments (even if not ratified or ratified but not yet implemented into national law)
    Argentina n. 2); Australia n. 4),6), 7), 8), 9) 11), 12); Canada n. 13), . 14), 15), 19), 20), 21),22); Chile n.24), 25); England n. 47); Estonia n. 49); India n. 53); Lesotho n. 67), 68), 69), 71) 72), 73); New Zealand n. 74), 75); Norway n. 76); Paraguay n. 81), 82); Republic of Lithuania n. 84); U.S.A. n. 108); Zambia n. 109)

  • International custom, international and foreign case law
    South Africa n. 95)

USE OF INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS TO:

  • Apply rights guaranteed by the Constitution, but no provision in national legislation (even if not yet ratified)
    Costa Rica n. 38); India n. 52), 54); Italy n. 63), 64), 65)

  • Assess national legislative objectives (could be used with CEACR's and CFA's case law)
    Canada n. 16), 18); Germany n. 51)

  • Ensure respect of minimum standards guaranteed by international conventions and national Constitution. Constitution implementing international obligations in accordance with international conventions
    Italy n. 62), 66)

  • Fill gaps of national legislation (even if not ratified)
    Australia n. 10); South Africa n. 97); Zimbabwe n. 110)

  • Interpret 'good industrial relations practice' (use of non-ratified conventions)
    Trinidad and Tobago n. 105)

  • Introduce the concept of 'social justice' with comparative law
    Zimbabwe n. 111)

  • Reinforce national legislation (could be used with ILO Constitution and CFA's case law)
    Colombia n. 28), 29); Costa Rica n. 30), 31), 32), 33), 35), 37), 41); Dominican Republic n.46); Paraguay n. 80); Republic of Lithuania n. 85); Russia n. 91); Spain n. 98), 100); Trinidad and Tobago n. 104); Chile n. 26)

  • Secure harmonised national interpretation (ratified but not yet implemented into national law)
    England n. 48); France n. 50); India n. 55)

  • Verify whether national law was consistent with national Constitution and with international standards
    Russia n. 89), 90); Slovenia n. 92), 93); Spain n. 101), 102), 103)

  • Verify whether national decisions were consistent with provisions of Constitution (used with international and foreign case-law)
    South Africa n. 96)

  • Specify the central parliament's jurisdiction on labour issues
    Australia n. 5)

OTHERS

  • Binding nature of CFA's reports
    Colombia n. 27)

  • Constitutional assessment of international conventions
    Chile n. 23); Costa Rica n. 43)

  • Customary law as guide for assessing legislative objectives
    Canada n. 17)


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